Herod the Great (73 BC – 4 BC)
Client King under Romans.
Father – Antipater the Idumaean
The Idumaeans were the descendants of the Edomites
Time of the Maccabees (140 – 130 BC) John Hyrcanus made Idumeans convert to Judaism
Herodians culturally Hellenistic.
Father poisoned 43 BC
40 BC Antigonus with support of Parthians defeated Herod
37 BC Romans executed Antigonus.
Herod reigned for 34 years.
Herod brought employment through building and trade projects.
Building projects included
The Caesarea Maritima
copper mines on
Extracted Asphalt from
Asphalt used for ship building.
18th year of Herods reign (c.19 BC) began to rebuild the Temple.
Main structure of the Temple rebuilt in one and a half years
Work on outer buildings and courts continued for another 80 years.
Provided mass employment
1000 priests employed as masons and carpenters
Married daughter of Antigonus, Mariamne.
Banished his first wife Doris with their son, Antipater.
36 BC Herod appointed 17 year old brother in law as High Priest – Aristobulus III