Herod the Great (73 BC – 4 BC)


Client King under Romans.

Father – Antipater the Idumaean



The Idumaeans were the descendants of the Edomites


Time of the Maccabees (140 – 130 BC)  John Hyrcanus made Idumeans convert to Judaism

Herodians culturally Hellenistic.



Herod appointed governor of Galilee by his father  in 48 BC

Father poisoned 43 BC


40 BC Antigonus with support of Parthians defeated Herod

Herod fled to Rome gained support of the Senate who declared him to be King of the Jews.


37 BC Romans executed Antigonus. 

Herod reigned for 34 years.

Died in Jericho (4 BC)




Herod brought employment through building and trade projects.



Building projects included

Rebuilt the Second Temple.

Water supplies to Jerusalem



The Caesarea Maritima



Financial projects

Leased copper mines on Cyprus

Extracted Asphalt from Dead Sea.

Asphalt used for ship building.





Herod’s Temple

18th year of Herods reign (c.19 BC) began to rebuild the Temple.

Main structure of the Temple rebuilt in one and a half years

Work on outer buildings and courts continued for another 80 years.

Provided mass employment

1000 priests employed as masons and carpenters




Married daughter of Antigonus, Mariamne. 

Banished his first wife Doris with their son, Antipater.



36 BC Herod appointed 17 year old brother in law as High Priest – Aristobulus III