Course: The Fruit of the Spirit

Lesson 1: The Works of the Flesh

Galatians 5:19-21 'Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are;

1.     The gratification of immoral sexual desires:

'adultery, fornication, uncleanness and lasciviousness.'

   Adultery, (Greek 'poicheia' )

Denotes unlawful intercourse with or by the spouse of another.

   Fornication, (Greek 'porneia')

Immoral sexual intercourse, Prostitution, harlotry

   Uncleaness. (Greek 'akatharsia')

Moral impurity - a negative kathairo to purify. Sexual uncleanness but still hiding the sin.

   Lasciviousness, (Greek 'aselgia')

Sexual immorality without shame - absence of restraint. The prominent idea is shameless conduct. No longer hiding but openly pursuing the sin without shame of being seen. Behaviour becomes like an animal.

2.     Religion, seduction, and mystery.

idolatry and witchcraft.

   Idolatry, (Greek 'eidololatreis')

Idol worship; from eidolon 'idol' and latreia 'service'.

eidolon - a likeness, a false god worshipped in an image, and

latreia meaning service.

   Witchcraft, (Greek 'pharmakeia')

Primarily signified the use of medicine, drugs, or spells; became associated with poisoning and sorcery. Administering of drugs was associated with the mystery religions. The mystery religions would not reveal the mysteries until the person's natural senses had been anaesthetised.

3.     The armoury of self.

Hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, and murders.


   Hatred, (Greek 'egthrai')

Personal animosities. The opposite of love 'agape'. It means enmity from 'echthros' enemy


   Variance, (Greek 'ereis')

Rivalry, discord, strife, contentions - it is the expression of enmity.


   Emulations, (Greek 'zeloi')

Jealousy - zealously desiring what another has got.


Note: difference between jealousy and envy.

Jealousy seeks to have what another possesses, Envy (phthonos) wants to take away from someone what he or she possesses.


   Wrath, (Greek 'thumoi')

Stirring emotions then explosions of wrath.

The opposite of longsuffering 'makrothumia'

Wrath - Hot anger, passion. An agitated condition of the feelings, an outburst of wrath from inward indignation.


   Strife, (Greek 'eritheiai')

Party spirit, rivalry, faction - it is the fruit of jealousy. Derived from erithos 'a hireling' it is not strife but seeking to win followers.


   Seditions, (Greek 'dichostasiai')

Standing apart. Two Greek words 'dicha' meaning asunder and 'stasis' meaning a standing - di indicates division.

Cf. Romans 16:17 'mark those who cause divisions and turn away'.


   Heresies, Greek 'aireseis')

Choosing opinions. A choosing - A self willed opinion, which is substituted for submission to the power of truth, and leads to division and the formation of sects. A division and the formation of a party or sect in contrast to the uniting power of 'the truth'.


   Envyings, (Greek 'phthonoi')

Envy - feelings of ill-will.

The feeling of displeasure produced by witnessing or hearing of the advantage or prosperity of others.


   Murders, (Greek 'phonoi')


4.      Indulgence in drunken excess and revelry.

Drunkenness and revelling.


   Drunkenness, (Greek 'methoi')

Drunken excesses. Habitual intoxication.


   Revellings, (Greek 'komoi')

Drinking parties associated with drunkenness and a consequence of it.

A komos was a band of drunken revellers, swaying and singing their way through the streets.'